Beyond the Basics: Directory Services for Intranets and the Internet at
A section of An LDAP Roadmap & FAQ: A tutorial aid to navigating
various LDAP and X.500 resources on the Internet, v2.0a
by: Jeff Hodges
This is v2.0a -- a "beta" release -- it is still way under construction. You will find version 1.5, which may or may not be more up-to-date, HERE. Apologies for any confusion.
Start here if you already know the Basics
as well as what's Behind the Basics and
are wondering about things such as applications of directories, deploying
directories, privacy, building directory-enabled services,
There are many things to consider in terms of deploying your directory.
Is it a general-purpose directory intended for use by arbitrary clients?
Is it embedded in a larger system and intended for a narrow set of clients?
Where, how, and from whom does its data come from? Why don't I just use
a relational database? How do I name my directory entries?
In this section, I have some references which shed light on some of
these questions and their answers. First, there are references to material
on overall deployment considerations. Second, there's information about
the topic of naming.
Introduction to Directories and LDAP, Jeff Hodges, June 1997.
The section on Deployment
Considerations and the Summary
in Hodges97 are relevant in this Beyond the Basics context. That
section discusses various aspects of general-purpose whitepages directory
deployment in terms of the type of enterprise to be served. It then presents
an overview of the architecture of the whitepages directory deployment
at Stanford University.
You'll note, if you read the Deployment
Considerations section, that we're (Stanford University) using
a relational database system (RDBMS) in conjunction with our LDAP-based
general-purpose whitepages directory service. The talk referenced below
does a good job of presenting the sort of considerations we had in arriving
at this design.
Lewis98 presents an overview of the issues relating to data sources
and its quality.
May98 provides an overview of Chevron's directory deployment, plus
suggestions for things to consider in general when deploying a whitepages
Naming Guidelines for the AARNet X.500 Directory Service.
G. Michaelson & M. Prior. December 1993. (Format: TXT=6884 bytes) (Status:
Requirements for Distinguished Names in Autonomous to Loosely-coupled
LDAP-based Directory Services. Jeff Hodges. INTERNET-DRAFT, Work
in Progress. October, 1997.
I am working on updating draft-hodges-ldap-dir-dn-reqs-00.txt, amongst
a zillion other things, so the draft may officially expire from the Internet-Drafts
directories before I get to it. It is also available
here if the above link becomes stale.
Naming and Structuring Guidelines for X.500 Directory Pilots.
P. Barker, S. Kille & T. Lenggenhager. May 1994. (Format: TXT=56739
bytes) (Obsoletes RFC1384) (Status: INFORMATIONAL)
Email Routing via LDAP Directories
Note: draft-ietf-asid-email-routing-su-00.txt officially expired and
has been removed from the Internet Drafts repository. I'm working on an
update to it and hope/plan to have it done in the next month or so (i.e.
"Reel Soon Now"). Our goal is to submit it as an Informational RFC.
Using LDAP with sendmail.8..x, Booker Bense, Stanford
University, October 1996.
[Bense96] provides both links to LDAP-enabled versions of Sendmail,
and instructions for how to utilize the LDAP-based email routing capabilities.
Server, is LDAP-enabled. draft-lachman-ldap-mail-routing-01.txt discusses
how this is architected.
ID on referrals
centroids and indexing
an X.500 Indexing System
Privacy and other Legalities
Privacy is a complex enough, and hot enough, topic to warrant its own
Applications of Directories
..or "what are these durn things good for anyways?!#$%"
A Survey of Advanced Usages of X.500. C. Weider & R.
Wright. July 1993. (Format: TXT=34883 bytes) (Also FYI0021) (Status: INFORMATIONAL)
are arguably the most prominent of applications for directory technology.
The RFCs below
A Common Schema for the Internet White Pages Service. T.
Genovese, B. Jennings. October 1997. (Format: TXT=16258 bytes) (Status:
Deployment of the Internet White Pages Service. H. Alvestrand,
P. Jurg. September 1997. (Format: TXT=31539 bytes) (Also BCP0015)
(Status: BEST CURRENT PRACTICE)
Managing the X.500 Root Naming Context. D. Chadwick.
March 1997. (Format: TXT=30773 bytes) (Status: EXPERIMENTAL)
A Minimum LDAPv3 White Pages Schema. C. Apple, T. Howes,
C. Weider, M. Wahl. INTERNET-DRAFT, Work in Progress. January 1998.
Building an X.500 Directory Service in the US. B. Jennings.
May 1996. (Format: TXT=51266 bytes) (Status: INFORMATIONAL)
Recommendations for an X.500 Production Directory Service.
R. Wright, A. Getchell, T. Howes, S. Sataluri, P. Yee, & W. Yeong.
June 1995. (Format: TXT=14721 bytes) (Status: INFORMATIONAL)
White Pages Meeting Report. J. Postel & C. Anderson.
February 1994. (Format: TXT=77945 bytes) (Status: INFORMATIONAL)
A Strategic Plan for Deploying an Internet X.500 Directory Service.
S. Hardcastle-Kille, E. Huizer, V. Cerf, R. Hobby & S. Kent. February
1993. (Format: TXT=47587 bytes) (Status: INFORMATIONAL)
Recommendations for the Phase I Deployment of OSI Directory Services
(X.500) and OSI Message Handling Services (X.400) within the ESNET Community.
ESCC X.500/X.400 Task Force, ESnet Site Coordinating Committee (ESCC).
May 1992. (Format: TXT=192925 bytes) (Status: INFORMATIONAL)
Mapping Network Entities into directories, commonly termed yellowpages,
An Approach for Using LDAP as a Network Information Service.
L. Howard. March 1998. (Format: TXT=41396 bytes) (Status: EXPERIMENTAL)
Charting Networks in the X.500 Directory. G. Mansfield, T.
Johannsen & M. Knopper. March 1994. (Format: TXT=30044 bytes) (Status:
Representing IP Information in the X.500 Directory. T. Johannsen,
G. Mansfield, M. Kosters & S. Sataluri. March 1994. (Format: TXT=40269
bytes) (Status: EXPERIMENTAL)
X.500 and Domains. S.E. Hardcastle-Kille. November 1991.
(Format: TXT=26669, PS=170029
bytes) (Status: EXPERIMENTAL)
Directory Enabled Networks
DEN info here.
LDAP over IP Datagram Protocol
Connection-less Lightweight X.500 Directory Access Protocol.
A. Young. June 1995.
RFC1798 specifies how LDAP is carried over a datagram
protocol such as IP,
rather than via a connection-based,
streaming protocol like TCP.
This document applies to LDAPv2. Developing a successor document for LDAPv3
is a work item for the LDAPEXT
working group (see this page).
Schema Publishing in X.500 Directory. G. Mansfield, P. Rajeev,
S. Raghavan, T. Howes. June 1995. (Format: TXT=18268 bytes) (Status: EXPERIMENTAL)
and Managing LDAP/X.500 Directories
X.500 Directory Monitoring MIB. G. Mansfield & S. Kille.
January 1994. (Format: TXT=33527 bytes) (Status: PROPOSED STANDARD)
X.500 Implementations Catalog-96. C. Apple, K. Rossen. April
1997. (Format: TXT=243994 bytes) (Obsoletes RFC1632) (Also FYI0011) (Status:
Understanding X.500 - The Directory. David Chadwick, University
of Salvord, UK. International Thomson Computer Press edition 1996. ISBN
185 0332 813.
A Vision of an Integrated Internet Information Service. C.
Weider & P. Deutsch. December 1994. (Format: TXT=28468 bytes) (Status:
From the abstract...
This paper lays out a vision of how Internet information services might
be integrated over the next few years, and discusses in some detail what
steps will be needed to achieve this integration.
The next section of these Roadmap pages
describes the current state of LDAP standardization.
Back to the LDAP Roadmap
table of contents...
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© 1996-1999 Jeff Hodges, All Rights Reserved